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雅思大作文如何回應評分標準中的現銜接和連貫?
2019-09-24 15:47   作者:新航道   閱讀量:

  雅思寫作四大評分標準中,大部分同學對詞匯、語法、任務的回應都有比較好的認識或簡單的了解,但是對coherence & cohesion(銜接和連貫)卻沒有什么概念。 因此,要在這個方面達到普遍的6分水平就會比較有挑戰。


  今天就跟大家來聊聊coherence & coherence這個模糊的概念,希望大家能夠從知道這是個什么要求到能夠很好回應這個要求,達到比較理想的寫作分數。


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  什么是coherence & coherence?

  Coherence:When something such as a piece of writing is easy to understand because its parts are connected in a clear and reasonable way(www.ldoce.com)

  Cohesion: If there is cohesion among a group of people, a set of ideas etc, all the parts or members of it are connected or related in a reasonable way to form a whole(www.ldoce.com)

  基于Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English 的定義,我們大概可以知道coherence & coherence指的是文章內部各部分的內容能夠合理地連接在一起。

  但是,仍然不太清楚二者的區別,更不太清楚怎樣做到內容間合理地連接在一起。下面看 Merriam-Webster’s Advanced Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary的定義:

  Coherence:ideas are logical and well-organized: easy  to understand

  Cohesive: ideas are closely united

  通過以上兩個資源的定義,我們可以這樣理解:  coherence 連貫指的是“合理的邏輯”,即句間邏輯合理且段落劃分清晰;cohesion銜接指的是“有效的銜接”,即句內、句間和段間的語言要用銜接詞連接。


  怎樣才能做到邏輯合理,有效銜接?

  這其實要求我們能夠恰當地使用恰當、有效的銜接詞。事實上, 銜接詞使用的恰當與否,直接影響邏輯上是否合理清晰,所以二者緊密聯系。下面我們來看一個段落:

  Children nowadays have more problems. Children in general are not as sociable as previous generations of children, who used to spend more time playing with friends. Some children may feel lonelier and more isolated. They may be less imaginative than children in the past. They do not have to invent their own games and they spend less time reading books.

  在讀的過程中我們會發現很“尬“,主要原因是句間沒有任何的銜接詞。同時,句間的邏輯關系并不清晰明了。那在詞句能表達都比較好的情況下,我們怎樣在銜接連貫這個層面去”拯救“或”優化“這個段落?大家可以看看加上以下括號內內容的段落情況:

  Children nowadays have more problems. (Firstly,)children in general are not as sociable as previous generations of children, who used to spend more time playing with friends. (As a result,)some children may feel lonelier and more isolated.(Besides,) they may be less imaginative than children in the past ( because)they do not have to invent their own games and they spend less time reading books.


  加上以上的銜接過渡詞后,整個段落讀起來會很順,不會尷尬; 最重要的是句間的邏輯關系也非常的清晰明了且合理。因此在平時的學習中我們要注意積累一些銜接過渡詞。下面給大家補充一些寫作中常見的銜接詞匯:

  1. 因果關系

  因為:because/since/as/for/ considering that/ given that +句子(從句), ....(主句)

  because of /owing to/ due to/ in view of+ 名詞,...

  所以:for such reasons/ as a result / therefore/ consequently/ thus / hence/in consequence/ as a consequence/under these conditions,...

  ...., so/ so that/ the consequence of which is that....

  2. 轉折關系

  ...but/while/yet…

  though/ even though / despite that/ in spite of the fact that..., ....

  however/ nevertheless/ on the other hand, ...

  3. 并列關系

  and/ as well as/ either...,or.../ both...and...

  also/ for one thing/ for another/  meanwhile/ at the same time, ...

  4. 遞進關系

  Furthermore/ moreover/ further/ in addition (to)/ additionally / next/ besides, ...

  not only...but also.../  more specifically/  in other words,...

  5. 先后關系

  first/ to begin with/ to start with/ first of all,...

  second/ next/  afterwards/ since then/ prior to this,....

  at last/ eventually/ last but not least/ to end with/ finally,...

  6.舉例關系

  for example/  for instance, ...

  ...., namely/ like/ such as/ including +名詞

  a case in point is.../ a good example would be...

  to detail this, I would like to.../take…as example

  7.比較關系(相同點)

  in comparison with/ when compared with/ compared with+名詞 ,...

  similarly/ likewise,....

  like+名詞, ....

  8.強調關系

  in fact/ definitely/  undoubtedly/  without a doubt/ undeniably/ naturally/ obviously , ...

  what is  particular/ believe it or not,....

  not to mention/ especially/ particularly+名詞,...


  怎樣做到“形散而神不散”?

  中文作文和英文作文有很大的相似度,文章內容也是需要通過某些紐帶來銜接的,也就是我們剛剛所提到過得cohesion。但是, 如果我們文章中只能夠使用以上我提到的銜接過渡詞(我們可以稱這些過渡詞為“明線”), 我們的作文是不能達到:“形散而神不散“, 這種高超境界的。

  同理, 雅思大作文中假使我們也只能使用這些“明線”的話, 就coherence & coherence這個部分,我們的分數大概在6-6.5左右。如果我們寫作單項要求7的話,大家在coherence & coherence這個方面就要練就“形散而神不散”的武功。那怎樣才能做到不留痕跡?在分析研究了多篇高分范文和考官范文后, 小C 老師我發現了秘訣。這里,我就跟大家分享其中的一個秘訣:合理使用“暗線”,即不使用明確的連接詞,而是借助上下文之間的語義承接關系來自然地承接上下文。

  暗線1:使用代詞或者限定詞對前一句話里出現的內容進行指代,從而在前后句之間形成自然的承接關系。

  代詞: this/ these +名詞 (指代上文一個、多個事物)

  this+trend/ development/ experience (指代上文一句話)

  they /their/ we/ us/ ours

  限定詞: the +noun

  such + noun


  下面我們就來分析一些范文,學習一下代詞和限定詞這條“暗線”的用法

  例一:Traditionally, children have begun studying foreign languages at secondary school, but introducing them earlier is recommended by some educationalists. This policy has been adopted by some educational authorities or individual schools, with both positive and negative outcomes. (C9T1  Task 2  a very good answer)

  解析:此處的them指代上一句的foreign languages,即避免了表達重復也無形中連接了上下句; this policy則指上文的一句話,使上下句間不留痕跡地聯系起來。

  例二:Local fixed line calls were the highest throughout the period, rising from 72 million minutes in 1995 to just under 90 million in 1998. After peaking at90 million the following year, these calls had fallen back to the 1995 figure by 2002.(C9T2 Task 1 a very good answer)

  解析:此處的these calls 指代的是上一句的Local fixed line calls。用詞雖然簡單,但是卻能夠使上下句話之間無縫銜接。

  通過以上的分析,大家現在應該認識到coherence & coherence其實就是要求文章中要使用恰當的方法使內容上有效銜接,邏輯上清晰合理。要做到這一點,我們首先要學會使用“明線”, 也就是一些明確的銜接詞。 要做到更好,那就要學會使用“暗線”,也就是不使用明確的連接詞,而是借助上下文之間的語義承接關系來自然地承接上下文。


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